If you want to buy a home, land or investment property you’ll have to sign a sale contract. The legal work involved in preparing the sale contract, mortgage and other related documents, is called conveyancing. It’s possible to do your own conveyancing, however, most people get a licensed conveyancer or solicitor to do the work for them.
By law, a residential property can not be put on the market until a sale contract has been drawn up. You have the right to examine the contract at any time once a property is on the market. If a particular property interests you, get a copy of the sale contract as soon as possible so you can ask your solicitor or conveyancer to review it. You should have this done before signing a sale contract.
Exchanging sale contracts is the legal part of buying a home. Before exchange, the agreement is usually just verbal and not binding. Up until you exchange contracts either you or the vendor have the right to change your minds.
After you have discussed the contract with your solicitor or licensed conveyancer and all the proper inquiries have been made, and after all the financial arrangements are in place, you will be ready to exchange contracts. There will be two copies of the sale contract: one for you and one for the vendor. You each sign one copy before they are swapped or ‘exchanged’. This can be done by hand or post and is usually arranged by your solicitor, conveyancer or the agent. If the agent is handling the exchange, you must expressly authorise them to do so.
At the time of the exchange you will be required to pay a deposit. While it is usual for a vendor to ask for a 10% deposit, any agreed amount of deposit is sufficient to make the contract binding on both parties. The amount must be agreed to by both parties and recorded on the contract. Following exchange, you have a financial interest in the property so it’s wise to consider getting it insured.
|NOTE - A contract has not been made and is not legally binding before the exchange of contracts and the payment of a deposit.|
When you buy a residential property in NSW there is a five business-day cooling-off period after you exchange sale contracts. During this period you have the option to get out of the contract as long as you give written notice. The cooling-off period starts as soon as you exchange and ends at 5pm on the fifth business day.
A cooling-off period does not apply if you buy a property at auction or exchange contracts on the same day as the auction after it is passed in.
You can waive the cooling-off period by giving the seller a ‘66W certificate’. This is a certificate that complies with Section 66W of the Conveyancing Act 1919. The certificate needs to be signed by your solicitor or conveyancer.
If you use your cooling-off rights and withdraw from the contract during the five business-day period, you will have to pay the seller 0.25% of the purchase price. This works out to be $250 for every $100,000.
Sometimes, there are more buyers looking for homes than there are properties on the market. This is called a sellers’ market. In this case, you may want to organise a quick contract exchange. This way you can reduce the possibility of someone beating your offer and get your building and pest inspections done during the cooling-off period. You will still be able to back out if there is a problem. However, it is important to have the contract checked by your solicitor or conveyancer before you sign it.
It is possible to waive, reduce or extend the cooling-off period with the consent of the seller. If your solicitor or conveyancer has examined certificates from the appropriate authorities, a pest and building inspection has been done and your finance has been approved, then deciding to waive the cooling-off period could make your offer more attractive to the seller.
Settlement usually takes place about six weeks after contracts are exchanged. This is when you become the legal owner of the property. The balance of the purchase price and other adjustments are paid on this date.
During the sale process, real estate agents and conveyancers are often responsible for holding money in trust for their clients. If an agent or conveyancer fails to account for that trust money, consumers may find themselves out of pocket. The Property Services Compensation Fund was set up to assist such people. Go to the Property Services Compensation Fund page for more information.